​​​​

​​​​​​​​​​​

Terms and Conditions – Showcase and Collectors Choice Auctions

1. Auction Basics.

This is a public auction sale (“Auction Sale”) conducted by bonded auctioneers, Stack’s Bowers Galleries or Stack’s Bowers and Ponterio (hereinafter referred to as “Auctioneer” and at times as “Stack’s Bowers”). Bidding in this Auction Sale constitutes acceptance by you (“Bidder”) of all the Terms of Sale stated herein. Bidders may include consignors who may bid and purchase lots in the Auction Sale consigned by the consignor or by other consignors pursuant to their consignment agreement with Stack’s Bowers (“Consignor” or “Consignors”). A Consignor that bids on their own lots in the Auction Sale may pay a different fee than the Buyer’s Premium charged to all other Buyers. Stack’s Bowers reserves the right to include in any auction sale its own material as well as material from affiliated or related companies, principals, officers or employees. Stack’s Bowers may have direct or indirect interests in any of the lots in the auction and may collect commissions. THE TWO PRECEDING SENTENCES SHALL BE DEEMED A PART OF THE DESCRIPTION OF ALL LOTS CONTAINED IN THE CATALOG. Where the Consignor has repurchased a lot and the lot is either returned to the Consignor or otherwise dealt with or disposed of in accordance with the Consignor’s direction, or pursuant to contractual agreement, Stack’s Bowers reserves the right to so note in the prices realized or to omit a price from the prices realized. Stack’s Bowers and its affiliates may bid for their own account at any auction. Stack’s Bowers and its affiliates may have information about any lot that is not known publicly, and Stack’s Bowers and its affiliates reserves the right to use such information, in a manner determined solely by them and for their benefit, without disclosing such information in the catalog, catalog description or at the auction. Bidder acknowledges and agrees that Stack’s Bowers and its affiliates are not required to pay a Buyer’s Premium, or other charges that other Bidders may be required to pay and may have access to information concerning the lots that is not otherwise available to the public. Any claimed conflict of interest or claimed competitive advantage resulting therefrom is expressly waived by all participants in the Auction Sale. Lots may carry a reserve (“Reserve”). A Reserve is a price or bid below which the Auctioneer will not sell an item or will repurchase on behalf of the Consignor or for Stack’s Bowers. Reserves may be confidential and not disclosed. The Buyer is the Bidder who makes the highest bid accepted by the Auctioneer, and includes the principal of any Bidder acting as an agent.

2. Descriptions and Grading

Bidder acknowledges that grading of most coins and currency in this Auction has been determined by independent grading services, and those that are not may be graded by Stack’s Bowers. Grading of rare coins and currency is subjective and, even though grading has a material effect on the value of the coins and currency, grading may differ among independent grading services and among numismatists. Stack’s Bowers is not responsible for the grades assigned by independent grading services, and makes no warranty or representation regarding such grades. Bidder further acknowledges and agrees that grades assigned by Stack’s Bowers and lot descriptions are based solely upon an examination of the coins and currency and are intended to identify coins and currency and note any perceived characteristics. However, coin grading and descriptions are subjective. Stack’s Bowers does not warrant the accuracy of such grading or descriptions, nor do they in any way form the basis for any bid. All photographs in this catalog are of the actual items being sold but may not be the actual size or to scale.

3. The Bidding Process

The Auctioneer shall have the right to open or accept the bidding on any lot by placing a bid on behalf of the Consignor or his or her agent; a Bidder by mail, telephone, Internet or telefax; or any other participant in the Auction Sale. Bids must be for an entire lot and each lot constitutes a separate sale. All bids must be on increment as established by the Auctioneer, or half increment (a cut bid). Non-conforming bids will be rounded down to the nearest half or full increment and this rounded bid will be the bidder’s high bid. No lot will be broken up unless otherwise permitted by the Auctioneer. Lots will be sold in their numbered sequence unless Auctioneer directs otherwise. All material shall be sold in separate lots to the highest Bidder as determined by the Auctioneer. Auctioneer shall have the right in its sole and absolute discretion to accept or decline any bid, establish bid increments, challenge any bid or bidding increment, to reduce any mail bid received, adjudicate all bidding disputes, to exclude any bidder and to determine the prevailing bid. The Auctioneer shall have the right, but not the obligation, to rescind the acceptance of any bid and place the lot(s) for Auction Sale again. Auctioneer’s decision on all bidding disputes shall be binding and final. For the mail and Internet Bidder’s protection, no “unlimited” or “buy” bids will be accepted. When identical bids are received for a lot, preference is given to the first bid received as determined by the Auctioneer. A mail bid will take precedence over an identical floor bid; a Floor Bidder, Telephone Bidder and Live Internet Bidder must bid higher than the highest mail bid to be awarded any lot. Cut bids are only accepted on bids greater than $500 and each bidder may only execute one cut bid per lot. Bids will not be accepted from persons under eighteen (18) years of age without a parent’s written consent which acknowledges the Terms of Sale herein and agrees to be bound thereby on behalf of the underage Bidder. The auction sale is complete when the Auctioneer so announces by the fall of the hammer or in any other customary manner.

THIS IS NOT AN APPROVAL SALE. Bidders who physically attend the Auction sale, either personally or through an agent (“Floor Bidders”) should carefully examine all lots which they are interested in purchasing. Bidders who bid by telephone, either personally or through an agent, or through our live auction software receive a similar benefit as Floor Bidders in being able to actively participate in the live Auction Sale (“Telephone Bidders” and “Live Internet Bidders”). Except as otherwise expressly provided in these Terms of Sale, NO PURCHASED ITEMS MAY BE RETURNED FOR ANY REASON. All prospective Bidders who examine the lot(s) prior to the Auction Sale personally assume all responsibility for any damage that Bidder causes to the lot(s). Stack’s Bowers shall have sole discretion in determining the value of the damage caused, which shall be promptly paid by such Bidder.

Certain auctions or auction sessions, will be conducted exclusively over the Internet, and bids will be accepted only from pre-registered Bidders.

STACK’S BOWERS IS NOT RESPONSIBLE FOR ANY ERRORS IN BIDDING. All Bidders should make certain to bid on the correct lot and that the bid is the bid intended. Once the hammer has fallen and the Auctioneer has announced the Buyer, the Buyer is unconditionally bound to pay for the lot, even if the Buyer made a mistake. Stack’s Bowers reserves the right to withdraw any lot at any time, even after the hammer has fallen, until the Buyer has taken physical possession of the lot. No participant in the Auction Sale shall have a right to claim any damages, including consequential damages if a lot is withdrawn, even if the withdrawal occurs after the Auction Sale.

4. Bidder Registration Required

All persons seeking to bid must complete and sign a registration card either at the auction or online, or otherwise qualify to bid, as determined in the sole discretion of the Auctioneer. By submitting a bid, the Bidder acknowledges that Bidder has read the Terms and Conditions of Auction Sale, the descriptions for the lot(s) on which they have bid, and that they agree to be bound by these Terms of Sale. This agreement shall be deemed to have been made and entered in California. The Bidder acknowledges that the invoice describing a lot by number incorporates the catalog and Terms of Sale. Person appearing on the OFAC list are not eligible to bid.

5. Buyer’s Premiums

A premium of twenty percent (20%) based upon the total amount of the hammer (minimum of $20), will be added to all purchases of individual lots, regardless of affiliation with any group or organization (the “Buyer’s Premium”). A reacquisition charge may apply to Consignors pursuant to a separate agreement, which may be higher or lower than the Buyer’s Premium.

6. Payment

Payment is due immediately upon the fall of the auctioneer’s hammer. Payment is delinquent and in default if not received in full, in good funds, within fourteen (14) calendar days of the Auction Sale (the “Default Date”), without exception, time being of the essence. Unless otherwise agreed in writing prior to the Auction Sale, all auction sales are payable strictly in U.S. Dollars or Hong Kong Dollars. All invoices will be made in United States Dollars. If paying in Hong Kong Dollars, Buyer’s invoices will be credited with the amount of U.S. Dollars received from Auctioneer’s bank. Payments may be made by credit card, Paypal, Union Pay, check, wire transfer, money order and cashier’s check. Cash transactions will be accepted in the sole discretion of Stack’s Bowers, and if accepted, for any cash transaction or series of transactions exceeding $10,000, a Treasury Form 8300 will be filed. Contact Stack’s Bowers for wiring instructions before sending a wire. Bank wires sent from a foreign bank are subject to an international bank wire fee of $35. We accept payment by Visa, MasterCard, American Express, Discover or Paypal for invoices up to $2,500, with a maximum of $10,000 in any 30 day period. All payments are subject to a clearing period. Checks drawn on U.S. banks will be subject to up to a 10 business day hold, and checks drawn on foreign banks will be subject to a 30 day hold. Stack’s Bowers reserves the right not to release lots for which good funds have not yet been received. On any past due accounts, Stack’s Bowers reserves the right, without notice, to extend credit and impose carrying charges (as described below). Buyers agree to pay reasonable attorney’s fees and cost incurred to collect past due accounts. Any invoice not paid by the Default Date will bear a five percent (5%) late fee on the invoice amount. Buyers personally and unconditionally guarantee payment in full of all amounts owed to Stack’s Bowers. Any person submitting bids on behalf of a corporation or other entity, by making such bid, agrees to be personally jointly and severally liable for the payment of the purchase price and any related charges and the performance of all Buyer obligations under these Terms of Sale and Stack’s Bowers reserves the right to require a written guarantee of such payments and obligations. Bidders who have not established credit with Stack’s Bowers must furnish satisfactory information and credit references and/or deposit at least twenty-five percent (25%) of their total bids for that Auction Sale session(s) or such other amount as Stack’s Bowers may, in its sole and absolute discretion require before any bids from such Bidder will be accepted. Deposits submitted will be applied to purchases. Any remaining deposits will be promptly refunded, upon clearance of funds.

7.  Sales Tax

Buyers will be charged all applicable sales tax unless a valid Resale Certificate has been provided to the Auctioneer prior to the auction. Should state sales tax become applicable in the delivery state prior to delivery of the property on the invoice, the Buyer agrees to pay all applicable state sales tax as required by the delivery state as of the shipping date. In the event any applicable sales tax is not paid by Buyer that should have been paid, even if not such tax was not charged or collected by Stack’s Bowers by mistake, error, negligence or gross negligence, Buyer nonetheless acknowledges responsibility to pay such sales tax and remains fully liable for and agrees to promptly pay such taxes on demand, together with any interest or penalty that may be assessed by the taxing authority and agrees to indemnify and hold Auctioneer harmless from any applicable sales tax, interest or penalties due. Lots from different Auctions may not be aggregated for sales tax purposes.

8.  Financial Responsibility

In the event any applicable conditions of these Terms of Sale herein are not complied with by a Buyer or if the Buyer fails to make payment in full by the Default Date, Stack’s Bowers reserves the right, in its sole discretion, in addition to all other remedies which it may have at law or in equity to rescind the sale of that lot or any other lot or lots sold to the defaulting Buyer, retaining all payments made by Buyer as liquidated damages, it being recognized that actual damages may be speculative or difficult to compute, and resell a portion or all of the lots held by Stack’s Bowers, in a commercially reasonable manner, which may include a public or private sale, in a quantity sufficient in the opinion of Stack’s Bowers to satisfy the indebtedness, plus all accrued charges, and Stack’s Bowers may charge a seller’s commission that is commercially reasonable. More than one such sale may take place at the option of Stack’s Bowers. If Stack’s Bowers resells the lots, Buyer agrees to pay for the reasonable cost of such sale, together with any incidental costs of sale, including reasonable attorney’s fees and costs, cataloging and any other reasonable charges. Notice of the sale shall be by U.S.P.S. Certified Mail, Return Receipt Requested to the address utilized on the Bid Sheet, Auction Consignment and Security Agreement or other last known address by Stack’s Bowers. The proceeds shall be applied first to the satisfaction of any damages occasioned by Buyer’s breach, then to any other indebtedness owed to Stack’s Bowers, including without limitation, commissions, handling charges, carrying charges, the expenses of both sales, seller’s fees, reasonable attorneys’ fees, costs, collection agency fees and costs and any other costs or expenses incurred. Buyer shall also be liable to Stack’s Bowers for any deficiency if the proceeds of such sale or sales are insufficient to cover such amounts.

Buyer grants to Stack’s Bowers, its affiliates and assignees, the right to offset any sums due, or found to be due to Stack’s Bowers, and to make such offset from any past, current, or future consignment, or purchases that are in the possession or control of Stack’s Bowers; or from any sums due to Buyer by Stack’s Bowers, its affiliates and assignees. In addition, defaulting Buyers will be deemed to have granted to Stack’s Bowers, its affiliates and assignees, a security interest in: (x) the purchased lots and their proceeds, and (y) such sums or other items and their proceeds, in the possession of Stack’s Bowers, its affiliates or assignees, to secure all indebtedness due to Stack’s Bowers and its affiliated companies, plus all accrued expenses, carrying charges, seller’s fees, attorney fees, and costs, until the indebtedness is paid in full. Buyer grants Stack’s Bowers the right to file a UCC-1 financing statement for such items, and to assign such interest to any affiliated or related company or any third party deemed appropriate by Stack’s Bowers. If the auction invoice is not paid for in full by the Default Date, a carrying charge of one-and-one-half percent (1-1/2%) per month may be imposed on the unpaid amount until it is paid in full. In the event this interest rate exceeds the interest permitted by law, the same shall be adjusted to the maximum rate permitted by law, and any amount paid in excess thereof shall be allocated to principal. Buyer agrees to pay all reasonable attorney’s fees, court costs and other collection costs incurred by Stack’s Bowers or any affiliated or related company to collect past due invoices or to interpret or enforce the terms hereof or in any action or proceeding arising out of or related to the Auction Sale. Stack’s Bowers reserves the right to assign its interest to any third party. To the extent that the Buyer for any lot consists of more than one person or entity, each such person or entity is jointly and severally liable for all obligations of the Buyer, regardless of the title or capacity of such person or entity. Stack’s Bowers shall have all the rights of a secured creditor under Article 9 of the California Commercial Code and all rights of the consignor to collect amounts due from the Buyer, whether at law or equity.

9.  Shipping

It is the Buyer’s responsibility to contact Stack’s Bowers after the sale to make shipping and packaging arrangements. Due to the fragile nature of some lots, Stack’s Bowers may elect not to assume responsibility for shipping or packing, or may charge additional shipping and handling. Stack’s Bowers, in its sole discretion, may not ship to select countries. Lots indicated as being “framed” or that are specifically identified in the catalog are shipped at Buyer’s risk. All taxes, postage, shipping, if applicable, handling, insurance costs, the Buyer’s Premium, and any other fees required by law to be charged or collected will be added to the invoice for any lots invoiced to Buyer. All lots shipped to foreign countries will be billed an additional one-half percent (1/2%) for insurance (minimum of $10). For any lots delivered outside the country where the auction is hosted, the declaration value shall be the item’(s) hammer price plus its buyer’s premium. Auctioneer shall not be liable for any loss caused or resulting from seizure or destruction under quarantine or customs regulation or confiscation by order of any government or public authority. Buyer shall be responsible for paying all applicable taxes, duties and customs charges for all lots delivered outside the country where the auction is hosted. All lots will be shipped FOB Destination, freight prepaid and charged back. Title and risk of loss pass to the Buyer at the destination upon tender of delivery. Acceptance of delivery constitutes acceptance of the purchased lots. Inspection of the purchased lots is not required for acceptance. Any and all claims based upon Buyer’s failure to receive a purchased lot, Buyer’s receipt of a lot in damaged condition, or otherwise related to delivery, must be received in writing by Stack’s Bowers no later than the earlier of thirty (30) days after payment, or the date of the Auction Sale (the “Outside Claim Date”). As Buyers may not receive notification of shipment, it is Buyer’s responsibility to keep track of the Outside Claim Date and make timely notification of any such claim. The failure to make a timely claim, time being of the essence, shall constitute a waiver of any such claim. Orders paid by credit card will only be shipped to the verified address on file with the credit card merchant.

10. DISCLAIMER AND WARRANTIES

NO WARRANTY OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE IS MADE OR IMPLIED ON ANY LOT. NO WARRANTY, WHETHER EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED, IS MADE WITH RESPECT TO ANY LOT EXCEPT FOR WARRANTY OF TITLE, AND IN THE CASE OF TITLE, AUCTIONEER IS SELLING ONLY THAT RIGHT OR TITLE TO THE LOT THAT THE CONSIGNOR MAY HAVE AS OF THE AUCTION SALE DATE. ALL LOTS ARE SOLD “AS IS” AND WITH ALL FAULTS. PURCHASER HEREBY ASSUMES ALL RISKS CONCERNING AND RELATED TO THE GRADING, QUALITY, DESCRIPTION, CONDITION, AND PROVENANCE OF A LOT.

a.  COINS AND CURRENCY LISTED IN THIS CATALOG AS GRADED AND ENCAPSULATED BY PCGS, NGC, ANACS, ICG, PCGS CURRENCY, PMG, PCGS BANKNOTE GRADING, CMC OR ANY OTHER THIRD PARTY GRADING SERVICE ARE SOLD “AS-IS” EXCEPT AS EXPRESSLY SET FORTH HEREIN AND MAY NOT BE RETURNED FOR ANY REASON WHATSOEVER BY ANY BUYER. ALL THIRD PARTY GRADING SERVICE GUARANTEES, INCLUDING AUTHENTICITY, ARE THE SOLE RESPONSIBILITY OF THE THIRD PARTY GRADING SERVICE AND NOT WARRANTIES OR GUARANTEES OF THE AUCTIONEER. BUYERS SHOULD CONTACT THESE THIRD PARTY GRADING SERVICES DIRECTLY WITH RESPECT TO ANY CLAIMS OR QUESTIONS THEY MAY HAVE CONCERNING THEIR GUARANTEES AND WARRANTIES. BUYERS ACKNOWLEDGE AND AGREE THAT AUCTIONEER IS NOT BOUND BY OR LIABLE FOR ANY OPINION OR CERTIFCATION BY ANY THIRD PARTY GRADING SERVICE.

b. In the case of non-certified coins  and currency that have neither been examined by the Buyer prior to the Auction Sale, nor purchased by the Buyer or Buyer’s agent at the Auction Sale, if it is determined in a review by Stack’s Bowers that there is a material error in the catalog description of a non-certified coin or currency, such lot may be returned, provided written notice is received by Stack’s Bowers no later than seventy-two (72) hours of delivery of the lots in question, and such lots are returned and received by Stack’s Bowers, in their original, sealed containers, no later than fourteen (14) calendar days after delivery, in the same condition the lot(s) were delivered to the Buyer, time being of the essence. Non-certified coins and currency that have been either examined by the Buyer prior to the Auction Sale or purchased by the Buyer or Buyer’s agent at the Auction Sale, will not be granted return privileges, except for authenticity. 

c. All non-certified coins and currency are guaranteed to be genuine.

d.  If an item or items are returned pursuant to the terms herein, they must be housed in their original, sealed and unopened container.

e. Late remittance or removal of any item from its original container, or altering a coin constitutes just cause for revocation of all return privileges.

f. Grading or condition of rare coins and currency may have a material effect on the value of the item(s) purchased, and the opinion of others (including independent grading services) may differ with the independent grading services opinion or interpretation of Stack’s Bowers. Stack’s Bowers shall not be bound by any prior, or subsequent opinion, determination or certification by any independent grading service.

g. Questions regarding the minting of a coin as a “proof” or as a “business strike” relate to the method of manufacture and not to authenticity.

h. All oral and written statements made by Stack’s Bowers and its employees or agents (including affiliated and related companies) are statements of opinion only, and are not warranties or representations of any kind, unless stated as a specific written warranty, and no employee or agent of Stack’s Bowers has authority to vary or alter these Terms and Conditions of Auction Sale. Stack’s Bowers reserves the right to vary or alter the Terms of Sale, either generally or with respect to specific persons or circumstances, in its sole discretion. Any variation or alteration shall be effective only if in writing and signed by an officer of Stack’s Bowers authorized to do so.

i. Stack’s Bowers is acting as an auctioneer. Title to the lots purchased passes directly from the Consignor to the Buyer. Accordingly, Stack’s Bowers is not making, and disclaims, any warranty of title.

j. Bidders shall have no recourse against the Consignor for any reason whatsoever.

k. Bidder acknowledges that the numismatic market is speculative, unregulated and volatile, and that coin prices may rise or fall over time. Stack’s Bowers does not guarantee or represent that any customer buying for investment purposes will be able to sell for a profit in the future.

l. Bidder acknowledges and agrees that neither Stack’s Bowers, nor its employees, affiliates, agents, third-party providers or consignors warrant that auctions will be unimpaired, uninterrupted or error free and accordingly shall not be liable for such events.

11. Waiver and Release

Waiver and Release. Bidder, for himself, his heirs, agents, successors and assignees, generally and specifically waives and releases, and forever discharges Stack’s Bowers, and its respective affiliates, parents, officers, directors, shareholders, agents, subsidiaries, employees, managers and members and each of them, and their respective successors and assignees from any and all claims, rights, demands and causes of actions and suits, of whatever kind or nature, including but not limited to claims based upon Auctioneer’s negligence, whether in law or equity, tort or otherwise, whether known or unknown, suspected or unsuspected (a “Claim”), which Bidder may assert with respect to and/or arising out of, or in connection with any challenge to the title to or authenticity of any goods purchased, the sale itself, any lot bid upon or consigned, and/or the auction, except where such Claim is otherwise expressly authorized in these Terms of Sale. It is the intention of Bidder that this waiver and release shall be effective as a bar to each and every Claim that may arise hereunder or be related to the Auction Sale, and Bidder hereby knowingly and voluntarily waives any and all rights and benefits otherwise conferred upon him by the provisions of Section 1542 of the California Civil Code, which reads in full as follows:

“A GENERAL RELEASE DOES NOT EXTEND TO CLAIMS WHICH THE CREDITOR OR RELEASING PARTY DOES NOT KNOW OR SUSPECT TO EXIST IN HIS OR HER FAVOR AT THE TIME OF EXECUTING THE RELEASE, WHICH IF KNOWN BY HIM OR HER MUST HAVE MATERIALLY AFFECTED HIS OR HER SETTLEMENT WITH THE DEBTOR OR RELEASED PARTY.”

12. Disputes

If a dispute arises concerning ownership of a lot or concerning proceeds of any sale, Stack’s Bowers reserves the right to commence a statutory inter-pleader proceeding at the expense of the Consignor and Buyer and any other applicable party, and in such event shall be entitled to its reasonable attorneys’ fees and costs. Stack’s Bowers reserves the right to cancel or postpone the Auction Sale or any session thereof for any reason whatsoever. No Bidder shall have any claim as a result thereof, including for incidental or consequential damages. Neither Stack’s Bowers nor any affiliated or related company shall be responsible for incidental or consequential damages arising out of any failure of the Terms of Sale, the auction or the conduct thereof and in no event shall such liability exceed the purchase price, premium, or fees paid. Rights granted to Bidders under the within Terms and Conditions of Auction Sale are personal and apply only to the Bidder who initially purchases the lot(s) from Stack’s Bowers. The rights may not be assigned or transferred to any other person or entity, whether by sale of the lot(s), operation of law or otherwise. Any attempt to assign or transfer any such rights shall be absolutely void and unenforceable. No third party may rely on any benefit or right conferred by these Terms and Conditions of Auction Sale.

Any dispute arising out of or related to these Terms of Sale, the Auction Sale or any lot, with the sole exception of actions by Stack’s Bowers to collect amounts owed to it and other damages, shall be submitted to binding arbitration pursuant to the commercial arbitration rules of the American Arbitration Association, with any arbitration hearing to occur in Orange County, California. Absent an agreement of the parties, the arbitrator shall limit discovery to that which is necessary to enable the hearing to proceed efficiently. The arbitrator shall not have the power to award punitive or consequential damages, nor alter, amend modify any of the terms of this Agreement. The award by the arbitrator, if any, may be entered in any court having jurisdiction thereof. Each party shall pay one-half the costs of the arbitration. Bidder acknowledges and agrees that the competent courts of the State of California shall have exclusive in personam jurisdiction, subject to the requirement to arbitrate, over any dispute(s) arising hereunder, regardless of any party’s current or future residence or domicile. Bidder further agrees that venue of the arbitration proceeding shall be in Orange County, California; and any court proceeding shall be in the Orange County Superior Court, in the State of California, and in each case waive any claim of Forum Non Conveniens. Bidder agrees that any arbitration or legal action with respect to this Auction Sale is barred unless commenced within one (1) year of the date of this Auction Sale. AUCTION PARTICIPANTS EXPRESSLY WAIVE ANY RIGHT TO TRIAL BY JURY.

13. General Terms

These Terms and Conditions of Auction Sale and the auction shall be construed and enforced in accordance with, and governed by, the laws of the State of California, regardless of the location of the Auction Sale. These Terms of Sale and the information on the Stack’s Bowers’ website constitute the entire agreement between the parties hereto on the subject matter hereof and supersede all other agreements, understandings, warranties and representations concerning the subject matter hereof. If any section of these Terms of Auction Sale or any term or provision of any section is held to be invalid, void, or unenforceable by any court of competent jurisdiction, the remaining sections or terms and provisions of a section shall continue in full force and effect without being impaired or invalidated in any way. Stack’s Bowers may at its sole and absolute discretion, make loans or advances to Consignors and/or Bidders.

14. Chinese Translation

Chinese Translation. The Chinese translations are provided as a matter of convenience. In the event of a conflict, all English Terms and Conditions and lot descriptions take precedence and are binding.

Bidding in this auction sale constitutes unconditional acceptance by the Bidder of the foregoing terms of sale.

Please note: Transparent holders in which the auction lots are stored are to facilitate viewing and inspection of the lots and ARE NOT for long-term storage.

PCGS and NGC numbers provided are for bidder convenience only, we do not guarantee their accuracy. An incorrect PCGS or NGC number is not grounds to return a lot.

For PRICES REALIZED after the sale, call 1-800-458-4646. Preliminary prices realized will also be posted on the Internet soon after the session closes.

4/6/2020

 

Terms and Conditions – Precious Metals Auctions

1. Auction Basics

This is a public auction sale (“Auction Sale”) conducted by bonded auctioneers, Stack’s Bowers Galleries or Stack’s Bowers and Ponterio (hereinafter referred to as “Auctioneer” and at times as “Stack’s Bowers”). Bidding in this Auction Sale constitutes acceptance by you (“Bidder”) of all the Terms of Sale stated herein. Bidders may include consignors who may bid and purchase lots in the Auction Sale consigned by the consignor or by other consignors pursuant to their consignment agreement with Stack’s Bowers (“Consignor” or “Consignors”). A Consignor that bids on their own lots in the Auction Sale may pay a different fee than the Buyer’s Premium charged to all other Buyers. Stack’s Bowers reserves the right to include in any auction sale its own material as well as material from affiliated or related companies, principals, officers or employees. Stack’s Bowers may have direct or indirect interests in any of the lots in the auction and may collect commissions. THE TWO PRECEDING SENTENCES SHALL BE DEEMED A PART OF THE DESCRIPTION OF ALL LOTS CONTAINED IN THE CATALOG. Where the Consignor has repurchased a lot and the lot is either returned to the Consignor or otherwise dealt with or disposed of in accordance with the Consignor’s direction, or pursuant to contractual agreement, Stack’s Bowers reserves the right to so note in the prices realized or to omit a price from the prices realized. Stack’s Bowers and its affiliates may bid for their own account at any auction. Stack’s Bowers and its affiliates may have information about any lot that is not known publicly, and Stack’s Bowers and its affiliates reserves the right to use such information, in a manner determined solely by them and for their benefit, without disclosing such information in the catalog, catalog description or at the auction. Bidder acknowledges and agrees that Stack’s Bowers and its affiliates are not required to pay a Buyer’s Premium, or other charges that other Bidders may be required to pay and may have access to information concerning the lots that is not otherwise available to the public. Any claimed conflict of interest or claimed competitive advantage resulting therefrom is expressly waived by all participants in the Auction Sale. Lots may carry a reserve (“Reserve”). A Reserve is a price or bid below which the Auctioneer will not sell an item or will repurchase on behalf of the Consignor or for Stack’s Bowers. Reserves may be confidential and not disclosed. The Buyer is the Bidder who makes the highest bid accepted by the Auctioneer, and includes the principal of any Bidder acting as an agent.

2. Descriptions and Grading

Bidder acknowledges that grading of most coins and currency in this Auction has been determined by independent grading services, and those that are not may be graded by Stack’s Bowers. Grading of rare coins and currency is subjective and, even though grading has a material effect on the value of the coins and currency, grading may differ among independent grading services and among numismatists. Stack’s Bowers is not responsible for the grades assigned by independent grading services, and makes no warranty or representation regarding such grades. Bidder further acknowledges and agrees that grades assigned by Stack’s Bowers and lot descriptions are based solely upon an examination of the coins and currency and are intended to identify coins and currency and note any perceived characteristics. However, coin grading and descriptions are subjective. Stack’s Bowers does not warrant the accuracy of such grading or descriptions, nor do they in any way form the basis for any bid. All photographs in this catalog are of the actual items being sold but may not be the actual size or to scale.

3. The Bidding Process

The Auctioneer shall have the right to open or accept the bidding on any lot by placing a bid on behalf of the Consignor or his or her agent; a Bidder by mail, telephone, Internet or telefax; or any other participant in the Auction Sale. Bids must be for an entire lot and each lot constitutes a separate sale. All bids must be on increment as established by the Auctioneer. Non-conforming bids will be rounded down to the nearest full increment and this rounded bid will be the bidder’s high bid. All bids must  be placed as a percentage of the effective metal price of the lot. Approximately one hour before the live auction begins, the effective metal prices of gold, silver, platinum and palladium will be fixed and remain unchanged throughout the entirety of the auction. For example, if the effective metal price of an ounce of silver is $15.00, a bid of 105% mean a price of $15.75 per ounce ($15.00 x 1.05% = $15.75). No lot will be broken up unless otherwise permitted by the Auctioneer. Lots will be sold in their numbered sequence unless Auctioneer directs otherwise. All material shall be sold in separate lots to the highest Bidder as determined by the Auctioneer. Auctioneer shall have the right in its sole and absolute discretion to accept or decline any bid, establish bid increments, challenge any bid or bidding increment, to reduce any mail bid received, adjudicate all bidding disputes, to exclude any bidder and to determine the prevailing bid. The Auctioneer shall have the right, but not the obligation, to rescind the acceptance of any bid and place the lot(s) for Auction Sale again. Auctioneer’s decision on all bidding disputes shall be binding and final. For the mail and Internet Bidder’s protection, no “unlimited” or “buy” bids will be accepted. When identical bids are received for a lot, preference is given to the first bid received as determined by the Auctioneer. A mail bid will take precedence over an identical floor bid; a Floor Bidder, Telephone Bidder and Live Internet Bidder must bid higher than the highest mail bid to be awarded any lot. Bids will not be accepted from persons under eighteen (18) years of age without a parent’s written consent which acknowledges the Terms of Sale herein and agrees to be bound thereby on behalf of the underage Bidder. The auction sale is complete when the Auctioneer so announces by the fall of the hammer or in any other customary manner.

THIS IS NOT AN APPROVAL SALE. Bidders who physically attend the Auction sale, either personally or through an agent (“Floor Bidders”) should carefully examine all lots which they are interested in purchasing. Bidders who bid by telephone, either personally or through an agent, or through our live auction software receive a similar benefit as Floor Bidders in being able to actively participate in the live Auction Sale (“Telephone Bidders” and “Live Internet Bidders”). Except as otherwise expressly provided in these Terms of Sale, NO PURCHASED ITEMS MAY BE RETURNED FOR ANY REASON. All prospective Bidders who examine the lot(s) prior to the Auction Sale personally assume all responsibility for any damage that Bidder causes to the lot(s). Stack’s Bowers shall have sole discretion in determining the value of the damage caused, which shall be promptly paid by such Bidder.

Certain auctions or auction sessions, will be conducted exclusively over the Internet, and bids will be accepted only from pre-registered Bidders.

STACK’S BOWERS IS NOT RESPONSIBLE FOR ANY ERRORS IN BIDDING. All Bidders should make certain to bid on the correct lot and that the bid is the bid intended. Once the hammer has fallen and the Auctioneer has announced the Buyer, the Buyer is unconditionally bound to pay for the lot, even if the Buyer made a mistake. Stack’s Bowers reserves the right to withdraw any lot at any time, even after the hammer has fallen, until the Buyer has taken physical possession of the lot. No participant in the Auction Sale shall have a right to claim any damages, including consequential damages if a lot is withdrawn, even if the withdrawal occurs after the Auction Sale.

4. Bidder Registration Required

All persons seeking to bid must complete and sign a registration card either at the auction or online, or otherwise qualify to bid, as determined in the sole discretion of the Auctioneer. By submitting a bid, the Bidder acknowledges that Bidder has read the Terms and Conditions of Auction Sale, the descriptions for the lot(s) on which they have bid, and that they agree to be bound by these Terms of Sale. This agreement shall be deemed to have been made and entered in California. The Bidder acknowledges that the invoice describing a lot by number incorporates the catalog and Terms of Sale. Person appearing on the OFAC list are not eligible to bid.

5. Buyer’s Premiums

There is no Buyer’s Premium in this auction.

6. Payment

Payment is due immediately upon the fall of the auctioneer’s hammer. Payment is delinquent and in default if not received in full, in good funds, within seventy two (72) hours of the Auction Sale (the “Default Date”), without exception, time being of the essence. Unless otherwise agreed in writing prior to the Auction Sale, all auction sales are payable strictly in U.S. Dollars or Hong Kong Dollars. All invoices will be made in United States Dollars. If paying in Hong Kong Dollars, Buyer’s invoices will be credited with the amount of U.S. Dollars received from Auctioneer’s bank. Payments may be made by credit card, Paypal, Union Pay, check, wire transfer, money order and cashier’s check. Cash transactions will be accepted in the sole discretion of Stack’s Bowers, and if accepted, for any cash transaction or series of transactions exceeding $10,000, a Treasury Form 8300 will be filed. Contact Stack’s Bowers for wiring instructions before sending a wire. Bank wires sent from a foreign bank are subject to an international bank wire fee of $35. We accept payment by Visa, MasterCard, American Express, Discover or Paypal for invoices up to $2,500, with a maximum of $10,000 in any 30 day period. All payments are subject to a clearing period. Checks drawn on U.S. banks will be subject to up to a 10 business day hold, and checks drawn on foreign banks will be subject to a 30 day hold. Stack’s Bowers reserves the right not to release lots for which good funds have not yet been received. On any past due accounts, Stack’s Bowers reserves the right, without notice, to extend credit and impose carrying charges (as described below). Buyers agree to pay reasonable attorney’s fees and cost incurred to collect past due accounts. Any invoice not paid by the Default Date will bear a five percent (5%) late fee on the invoice amount. Buyers personally and unconditionally guarantee payment in full of all amounts owed to Stack’s Bowers. Any person submitting bids on behalf of a corporation or other entity, by making such bid, agrees to be personally jointly and severally liable for the payment of the purchase price and any related charges and the performance of all Buyer obligations under these Terms of Sale and Stack’s Bowers reserves the right to require a written guarantee of such payments and obligations. Bidders who have not established credit with Stack’s Bowers must furnish satisfactory information and credit references and/or deposit at least twenty-five percent (25%) of their total bids for that Auction Sale session(s) or such other amount as Stack’s Bowers may, in its sole and absolute discretion require before any bids from such Bidder will be accepted. Deposits submitted will be applied to purchases. Any remaining deposits will be promptly refunded, upon clearance of funds.

7.  Sales Tax

Buyers will be charged all applicable sales tax unless a valid Resale Certificate has been provided to the Auctioneer prior to the auction. Should state sales tax become applicable in the delivery state prior to delivery of the property on the invoice, the Buyer agrees to pay all applicable state sales tax as required by the delivery state as of the shipping date. In the event any applicable sales tax is not paid by Buyer that should have been paid, even if not such tax was not charged or collected by Stack’s Bowers by mistake, error, negligence or gross negligence, Buyer nonetheless acknowledges responsibility to pay such sales tax and remains fully liable for and agrees to promptly pay such taxes on demand, together with any interest or penalty that may be assessed by the taxing authority and agrees to indemnify and hold Auctioneer harmless from any applicable sales tax, interest or penalties due. Lots from different Auctions may not be aggregated for sales tax purposes.

8.  Financial Responsibility

In the event any applicable conditions of these Terms of Sale herein are not complied with by a Buyer or if the Buyer fails to make payment in full by the Default Date, Stack’s Bowers reserves the right, in its sole discretion, in addition to all other remedies which it may have at law or in equity to rescind the sale of that lot or any other lot or lots sold to the defaulting Buyer, retaining all payments made by Buyer as liquidated damages, it being recognized that actual damages may be speculative or difficult to compute, and resell a portion or all of the lots held by Stack’s Bowers, in a commercially reasonable manner, which may include a public or private sale, in a quantity sufficient in the opinion of Stack’s Bowers to satisfy the indebtedness, plus all accrued charges, and Stack’s Bowers may charge a seller’s commission that is commercially reasonable. More than one such sale may take place at the option of Stack’s Bowers. If Stack’s Bowers resells the lots, Buyer agrees to pay for the reasonable cost of such sale, together with any incidental costs of sale, including reasonable attorney’s fees and costs, cataloging and any other reasonable charges. Notice of the sale shall be by U.S.P.S. Certified Mail, Return Receipt Requested to the address utilized on the Bid Sheet, Auction Consignment and Security Agreement or other last known address by Stack’s Bowers. The proceeds shall be applied first to the satisfaction of any damages occasioned by Buyer’s breach, then to any other indebtedness owed to Stack’s Bowers, including without limitation, commissions, handling charges, carrying charges, the expenses of both sales, seller’s fees, reasonable attorneys’ fees, costs, collection agency fees and costs and any other costs or expenses incurred. Buyer shall also be liable to Stack’s Bowers for any deficiency if the proceeds of such sale or sales are insufficient to cover such amounts.

Buyer grants to Stack’s Bowers, its affiliates and assignees, the right to offset any sums due, or found to be due to Stack’s Bowers, and to make such offset from any past, current, or future consignment, or purchases that are in the possession or control of Stack’s Bowers; or from any sums due to Buyer by Stack’s Bowers, its affiliates and assignees. In addition, defaulting Buyers will be deemed to have granted to Stack’s Bowers, its affiliates and assignees, a security interest in: (x) the purchased lots and their proceeds, and (y) such sums or other items and their proceeds, in the possession of Stack’s Bowers, its affiliates or assignees, to secure all indebtedness due to Stack’s Bowers and its affiliated companies, plus all accrued expenses, carrying charges, seller’s fees, attorney fees, and costs, until the indebtedness is paid in full. Buyer grants Stack’s Bowers the right to file a UCC-1 financing statement for such items, and to assign such interest to any affiliated or related company or any third party deemed appropriate by Stack’s Bowers. If the auction invoice is not paid for in full by the Default Date, a carrying charge of one-and-one-half percent (1-1/2%) per month may be imposed on the unpaid amount until it is paid in full. In the event this interest rate exceeds the interest permitted by law, the same shall be adjusted to the maximum rate permitted by law, and any amount paid in excess thereof shall be allocated to principal. Buyer agrees to pay all reasonable attorney’s fees, court costs and other collection costs incurred by Stack’s Bowers or any affiliated or related company to collect past due invoices or to interpret or enforce the terms hereof or in any action or proceeding arising out of or related to the Auction Sale. Stack’s Bowers reserves the right to assign its interest to any third party. To the extent that the Buyer for any lot consists of more than one person or entity, each such person or entity is jointly and severally liable for all obligations of the Buyer, regardless of the title or capacity of such person or entity. Stack’s Bowers shall have all the rights of a secured creditor under Article 9 of the California Commercial Code and all rights of the consignor to collect amounts due from the Buyer, whether at law or equity.

9.  Shipping

It is the Buyer’s responsibility to contact Stack’s Bowers after the sale to make shipping and packaging arrangements. Due to the fragile nature of some lots, Stack’s Bowers may elect not to assume responsibility for shipping or packing, or may charge additional shipping and handling. Stack’s Bowers, in its sole discretion, May not ship to select countries. Lots indicated as being “framed” or that are specifically identified in the catalog are shipped at Buyer’s risk. All taxes, postage, shipping, if applicable, handling, insurance costs, the Buyer’s Premium, and any other fees required by law to be charged or collected will be added to the invoice for any lots invoiced to Buyer. All lots shipped to foreign countries will be billed an additional one-half percent (1/2%) for insurance (minimum of $10). For any lots delivered outside the country where the auction is hosted, the declaration value shall be the item’(s) hammer price plus its buyer’s premium. Auctioneer shall not be liable for any loss caused or resulting from seizure or destruction under quarantine or customs regulation or confiscation by order of any government or public authority. Buyer shall be responsible for paying all applicable taxes, duties and customs charges for all lots delivered outside the country where the auction is hosted. All lots will be shipped FOB Destination, freight prepaid and charged back. Title and risk of loss pass to the Buyer at the destination upon tender of delivery. Acceptance of delivery constitutes acceptance of the purchased lots. Inspection of the purchased lots is not required for acceptance. Any and all claims based upon Buyer’s failure to receive a purchased lot, Buyer’s receipt of a lot in damaged condition, or otherwise related to delivery, must be received in writing by Stack’s Bowers no later than the earlier of thirty (30) days after payment, or the date of the Auction Sale (the “Outside Claim Date”). As Buyers may not receive notification of shipment, it is Buyer’s responsibility to keep track of the Outside Claim Date and make timely notification of any such claim. The failure to make a timely claim, time being of the essence, shall constitute a waiver of any such claim. Orders paid by credit card will only be shipped to the verified address on file with the credit card merchant.

10. DISCLAIMER AND WARRANTIES

NO WARRANTY OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE IS MADE OR IMPLIED ON ANY LOT. NO WARRANTY, WHETHER EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED, IS MADE WITH RESPECT TO ANY LOT EXCEPT FOR WARRANTY OF TITLE, AND IN THE CASE OF TITLE, AUCTIONEER IS SELLING ONLY THAT RIGHT OR TITLE TO THE LOT THAT THE CONSIGNOR MAY HAVE AS OF THE AUCTION SALE DATE. ALL LOTS ARE SOLD “AS IS” AND WITH ALL FAULTS. PURCHASER HEREBY ASSUMES ALL RISKS CONCERNING AND RELATED TO THE GRADING, QUALITY, DESCRIPTION, CONDITION, AND PROVENANCE OF A LOT.

a.  COINS AND CURRENCY LISTED IN THIS CATALOG AS GRADED AND ENCAPSULATED BY PCGS, NGC, ANACS, ICG, PCGS CURRENCY, PMG, PCGS BANKNOTE GRADING, CMC OR ANY OTHER THIRD PARTY GRADING SERVICE ARE SOLD “AS-IS” EXCEPT AS EXPRESSLY SET FORTH HEREIN AND MAY NOT BE RETURNED FOR ANY REASON WHATSOEVER BY ANY BUYER. ALL THIRD PARTY GRADING SERVICE GUARANTEES, INCLUDING AUTHENTICITY, ARE THE SOLE RESPONSIBILITY OF THE THIRD PARTY GRADING SERVICE AND NOT WARRANTIES OR GUARANTEES OF THE AUCTIONEER. BUYERS SHOULD CONTACT THESE THIRD PARTY GRADING SERVICES DIRECTLY WITH RESPECT TO ANY CLAIMS OR QUESTIONS THEY MAY HAVE CONCERNING THEIR GUARANTEES AND WARRANTIES. BUYERS ACKNOWLEDGE AND AGREE THAT AUCTIONEER IS NOT BOUND BY OR LIABLE FOR ANY OPINION OR CERTIFCATION BY ANY THIRD PARTY GRADING SERVICE.

b.  In the case of non-certified coins  and currency that have neither been examined by the Buyer prior to the Auction Sale, nor purchased by the Buyer or Buyer’s agent at the auction sale, if it is determined in a review by Stack’s Bowers that there is a material error in the catalog description of a non-certified coin or currency, such lot may be returned, provided written notice is received by Stack’s Bowers no later than seventy-two (72) hours of delivery of the lots in question, and such lots are returned and received by Stack’s Bowers, in their original, sealed containers, no later than fourteen (14) calendar days after delivery, in the same condition the lot(s) were delivered to the Buyer, time being of the essence.  Non-certified coins and currency that have been either examined by the Buyer prior to the Auction Sale or purchased by the Buyer or Buyer’s agent at the Auction Sale, will not be granted return privileges, except for authenticity.

c. All non-certified coins and currency are guaranteed to be genuine.

 

d.  If an item or items are returned pursuant to the terms herein, they must be housed in their original, sealed and unopened container.

 

e.  Late remittance or removal of any item from its original container, or altering a coin constitutes just cause for revocation of all return privileges.

 

f.  Grading or condition of rare coins and currency may have a material effect on the value of the item(s) purchased, and the opinion of others (including independent grading services) may differ with the independent grading services opinion or interpretation of Stack’s Bowers. Stack’s Bowers shall not be bound by any prior, or subsequent opinion, determination or certification by any independent grading service.

 

g.  Questions regarding the minting of a coin as a “proof” or as a “business strike” relate to the method of manufacture and not to authenticity.

 

h.  All oral and written statements made by Stack’s Bowers and its employees or agents (including affiliated and related companies) are statements of opinion only, and are not warranties or representations of any kind, unless stated as a specific written warranty, and no employee or agent of Stack’s Bowers has authority to vary or alter these Terms and Conditions of Auction Sale. Stack’s Bowers reserves the right to vary or alter the Terms of Sale, either generally or with respect to specific persons or circumstances, in its sole discretion. Any variation or alteration shall be effective only if in writing and signed by an officer of Stack’s Bowers authorized to do so.

 

i. Stack’s Bowers is acting as an auctioneer. Title to the lots purchased passes directly from the Consignor to the Buyer. Accordingly, Stack’s Bowers is not making, and disclaims, any warranty of title.

 

j. Bidders shall have no recourse against the Consignor for any reason whatsoever.

 

k. Bidder acknowledges that the numismatic market is speculative, unregulated and volatile, and that coin prices may rise or fall over time. Stack’s Bowers does not guarantee or represent that any customer buying for investment purposes will be able to sell for a profit in the future.

 

l. Bidder acknowledges and agrees that neither Stack’s Bowers, nor its employees, affiliates, agents, third-party providers or consignors warrant that auctions will be unimpaired, uninterrupted or error free and accordingly shall not be liable for such events.

11. Waiver and Release

Bidder, for himself, his heirs, agents, successors and assignees, generally and specifically waives and releases, and forever discharges Stack’s Bowers, and its respective affiliates, parents, officers, directors, shareholders, agents, subsidiaries, employees, managers and members and each of them, and their respective successors and assignees from any and all claims, rights, demands and causes of actions and suits, of whatever kind or nature, including but not limited to claims based upon Auctioneer’s negligence, whether in law or equity, tort or otherwise, whether known or unknown, suspected or unsuspected (a “Claim”), which Bidder may assert with respect to and/or arising out of, or in connection with any challenge to the title to or authenticity of any goods purchased, the sale itself, any lot bid upon or consigned, and/or the auction, except where such Claim is otherwise expressly authorized in these Terms of Sale. It is the intention of Bidder that this waiver and release shall be effective as a bar to each and every Claim that may arise hereunder or be related to the Auction Sale, and Bidder hereby knowingly and voluntarily waives any and all rights and benefits otherwise conferred upon him by the provisions of Section 1542 of the California Civil Code, which reads in full as follows:

“A GENERAL RELEASE DOES NOT EXTEND TO CLAIMS WHICH THE CREDITOR OR RELEASING PARTY DOES NOT KNOW OR SUSPECT TO EXIST IN HIS OR HER FAVOR AT THE TIME OF EXECUTING THE RELEASE, WHICH IF KNOWN BY HIM OR HER MUST HAVE MATERIALLY AFFECTED HIS OR HER SETTLEMENT WITH THE DEBTOR OR RELEASED PARTY.”

12. Disputes

If a dispute arises concerning ownership of a lot or concerning proceeds of any sale, Stack’s Bowers reserves the right to commence a statutory inter-pleader proceeding at the expense of the Consignor and Buyer and any other applicable party, and in such event shall be entitled to its reasonable attorneys’ fees and costs. Stack’s Bowers reserves the right to cancel or postpone the Auction Sale or any session thereof for any reason whatsoever. No Bidder shall have any claim as a result thereof, including for incidental or consequential damages. Neither Stack’s Bowers nor any affiliated or related company shall be responsible for incidental or consequential damages arising out of any failure of the Terms of Sale, the auction or the conduct thereof and in no event shall such liability exceed the purchase price, premium, or fees paid. Rights granted to Bidders under the within Terms and Conditions of Auction Sale are personal and apply only to the Bidder who initially purchases the lot(s) from Stack’s Bowers. The rights may not be assigned or transferred to any other person or entity, whether by sale of the lot(s), operation of law or otherwise. Any attempt to assign or transfer any such rights shall be absolutely void and unenforceable. No third party may rely on any benefit or right conferred by these Terms and Conditions of Auction Sale.

Any dispute arising out of or related to these Terms of Sale, the Auction Sale or any lot, with the sole exception of actions by Stack’s Bowers to collect amounts owed to it and other damages, shall be submitted to binding arbitration pursuant to the commercial arbitration rules of the American Arbitration Association, with any arbitration hearing to occur in Orange County, California. Absent an agreement of the parties, the arbitrator shall limit discovery to that which is necessary to enable the hearing to proceed efficiently. The arbitrator shall not have the power to award punitive or consequential damages, nor alter, amend modify any of the terms of this Agreement. The award by the arbitrator, if any, may be entered in any court having jurisdiction thereof. Each party shall pay one-half the costs of the arbitration. Bidder acknowledges and agrees that the competent courts of the State of California shall have exclusive in personam jurisdiction, subject to the requirement to arbitrate, over any dispute(s) arising hereunder, regardless of any party’s current or future residence or domicile. Bidder further agrees that venue of the arbitration proceeding shall be in Orange County, California; and any court proceeding shall be in the Orange County Superior Court, in the State of California, and in each case waive any claim of Forum Non Conveniens. Bidder agrees that any arbitration or legal action with respect to this Auction Sale is barred unless commenced within one (1) year of the date of this Auction Sale. AUCTION PARTICIPANTS EXPRESSLY WAIVE ANY RIGHT TO TRIAL BY JURY.

13. General Terms

These Terms and Conditions of Auction Sale and the auction shall be construed and enforced in accordance with, and governed by, the laws of the State of California, regardless of the location of the Auction Sale. These Terms of Sale and the information on the Stack’s Bowers’ website constitute the entire agreement between the parties hereto on the subject matter hereof and supersede all other agreements, understandings, warranties and representations concerning the subject matter hereof. If any section of these Terms of Auction Sale or any term or provision of any section is held to be invalid, void, or unenforceable by any court of competent jurisdiction, the remaining sections or terms and provisions of a section shall continue in full force and effect without being impaired or invalidated in any way. Stack’s Bowers may at its sole and absolute discretion, make loans or advances to Consignors and/or Bidders.

14. Chinese Translation

The Chinese translations are provided as a matter of convenience. In the event of a conflict, all English Terms and Conditions and lot descriptions take precedence and are binding.

Bidding in this auction sale constitutes unconditional acceptance by the Bidder of the foregoing terms of sale.

Please note: Transparent holders in which the auction lots are stored are to facilitate viewing and inspection of the lots and ARE NOT for long-term storage.

PCGS and NGC numbers provided are for bidder convenience only, we do not guarantee their accuracy. An incorrect PCGS or NGC number is not grounds to return a lot.

For PRICES REALIZED after the sale, call 1-800-458-4646. Preliminary prices realized will also be posted on the Internet soon after the session closes.

 

4/6/2020

Privacy Policy

This Privacy Policy describes how the affiliated companies Stacks-Bowers Numismatics, LLC, Spectrum Group International, Inc., Spectrum Auction Services, LLC, Spectrum Numismatics International, Inc., Bowers and Merena Auctions, LLC, SGI France SAS, SBG Finance, LLC, and Stacks-Bowers and Ponterio, LTD (collectively, "we," "us," "our," or "ourselves") collect, use, and share information from our customers and visitors of the websites that we maintain (the "Sites").  The terms "you" or "your" refer to any of our customers or visitors using the Sites.

By using the Sites, you agree to this Privacy Policy. This is our entire and exclusive Privacy Policy, and it supersedes any earlier versions.  We may update the Privacy Policy.  When we do so, we will revise the "Last Updated" date of the Privacy Policy. 

For a detailed description of the rights of California consumers under the California Consumer Privacy Act, please see the section below titled "California Consumer Privacy Rights."

  1. Collection of Your Information

    When you use the Sites, you may provide us with, or we may otherwise collect, personal information in various ways, which we describe here. 
  • Accounts:  Before accessing certain features of the Sites, you may need to create an online account.  When you create an online account, you will be prompted to provide us with certain personal information that may include your name, address, birthdate, telephone number, and email address.  Once you have created an online account, you may be able to modify, edit, or delete personal information relating to your account.   
  • Products and Services:  If you choose to purchase or sell a product through the Sites, or use our services through the Sites, we may ask you for personal information, including your name, email address, telephone number, billing address, credit card number, Social Security Number, and certain financial information.  If you are using auction services on one of the Sites, we may collect information about your auction activity and bidding history.    

    You may download or otherwise obtain forms or applications that you then transmit to us in connection with our products and services.  These forms may ask for personal information, including your name, address, telephone number, driver's license number, email address, Social Security Number, birthdate, and certain financial information.   

    If you are applying for a loan through one of the Sites, we may collect personal information, including your name, phone number, address, email address, and, where applicable, your credit card or other payment information, demographic information, Social Security Number, banking information, and credit and payments history.
  • Communications:  In order to provide you with customer service via the Sites, email, telephone, or mail, we may request that you provide personal information including your name, email, and online account information.  If we encounter a problem when processing your orders, forms, or applications, or when attempting to provide you with requested services, we may use your personal information to contact you. 

    You may also provide us with personal information, including your name, shipping address, telephone number, and email address, in order to receive news, offers, catalogs, or other promotional information about our products and services. 

    If you are communicating with us via telephone, we may monitor or record any calls, for quality control and for our records.  We will inform you that your call may be monitored or recorded before the call begins.  We do not consent to the recording of telephone conversations by you or by any other party on your behalf.  Any calls you have with us are not confidential and are not private.       
  • Cookies and Other Technologies:  The Sites use cookies, web beacons (also known as "pixel tags" or "action tags"), and other technologies to facilitate your navigation of the Sites, recognize you and your access privileges, and track your usage of the Sites.

    Cookies are small pieces of information that are stored as text files by your Internet browser on your computer's hard drive.  We use cookies to enable you to select products, place products in an online shopping cart, and to purchase products.  If you do this, we keep a record of your browsing activity and purchase history.  Most Internet browsers are initially set to accept cookies.  You can set your browser to refuse cookies from websites or to remove cookies from your hard drive.  If you do so, you may not be able to access or use portions of the Sites, and you may be required to re-enter login details.

    We use web beacons to assist us in delivering cookies and help us determine whether you have viewed web pages on the Sites and, if so, how many times.

    We use anonymous identifiers to speed up your navigation of the Sites, recognize you and your access privileges, and track your usage of the Sites. An anonymous identifier is a random string of characters that we use for the same purposes as a cookie on platforms, including certain mobile devices, where cookie technology is not available.

    We use third-party companies to help tailor our Sites' content to users, to serve ads on our behalf, and to conduct data analysis.  These companies may employ cookies and web beacons to measure advertising effectiveness (such as which web pages are visited or what products are purchased).  Any information that these third parties collect via cookies and web beacons is not linked to any personal information collected by us. 

    The Sites do not respond to web browser "do not track" signals or other mechanisms that provide consumers the ability to exercise choice regarding the collection of personally identifiable information about an individual consumer's online activities over time and across third-party websites or online service collection.

    The Sites use Google Analytics, a service provided by Google, LLC ("Google"®) to collect information about use of the Sites.  Google Analytics collects information such as how often users visit the Sites, what pages they visit when they do so, and what other websites they used prior to visiting the Sites.  We use the information we receive from Google Analytics to improve the Sites.  Google Analytics collects only the Internet protocol ("IP") address assigned to you on the date you visit any of the Sites.  We do not combine the information collected through the use of Google Analytics with personal information.  Although Google Analytics plants a permanent cookie on your web browser to identify you as a unique user the next time you visit this site, the cookie cannot be used by anyone but Google.  Google's ability to use and share information collected by Google Analytics about your visits to this site is restricted by the Google Analytics Terms of Use and the Google Privacy Policy.  You can prevent Google Analytics from recognizing you on return visits to the Sites by disabling cookies on your browser.  To learn more about the use of cookies for Google Analytics and to exercise choice regarding such cookies, please visit the Google Analytics Opt-out Browser Add-on
  • Log Files:  The Sites' servers automatically recognize the Internet URL from which you access the Sites. We may also log your IP address, Internet service provider, and date/time stamp for system administration, order verification, internal marketing, and system troubleshooting purposes.

    Third Parties:  We may update and supplement personal information that we have collected directly from our customers with other information that we obtain from third parties. This may include information regarding demographics, income estimations, households, and marital status.  In order to conduct due diligence in connection with your orders or service requests, we may acquire additional personal information about you from third parties.  When we associate information that we obtain from third parties with personal information that we have collected under this Privacy Policy, we will treat the acquired information like the information that we collected ourselves and, except as described in this Privacy Policy, the information will not be shared with third parties.
  1. Use of Your Information

    We may use your personal information for various reasons, which we describe here.   
  • Orders and Services:  We may use your personal information for registering your account; processing, tracking, and fulfilling your orders and transactions; performing requested services; sending you invoices; and keeping records of your account history.    
  • Communications with You:  We may use your personal information to provide requested information and to communicate with you about orders (including deliveries) and services.  We may send you a confirmation email when you register an account or place an order on the Sites. 

    If you have submitted personal information in order to receive news, catalogs, or special offers, to participate in promotions, or for any other marketing purposes, we may use your personal information to deliver information to you.  We always permit you to unsubscribe or opt out of future emails (see the below section titled "Your Rights" for more details).  Because we have to communicate with you about orders that you choose to place, you cannot opt out of receiving communications related to your orders.
  • Customer Service:  We use your personal information to provide you with customer service.  We may also notify you of technical updates when it is necessary (for example, if we must temporarily suspend any services for maintenance).
  • Internal Use:  We may internally use your personal information to improve the Sites' content and layout, to improve outreach, for our own marketing efforts, and to determine general marketplace information about visitors to the Sites.  For example, we may analyze server log data and certain personal information in an aggregate form, such as aggregate purchase price and preferences, in order to develop new products or services. 

    We may also use your personal information to verify your delivery or credit card information, or to otherwise conduct due diligence to ensure proper processing of your order and to minimize the risk of fraudulent transactions.   
  1. Sharing Your Information

    We may share personal information, including your name, address, email address, and birthdate, to third parties to perform specific functions on our behalf.  When we disclose personal information to these third-party service providers, we do so in order to help them perform their services.

    We provide personal information, including names, shipping addresses, email addresses, and phone numbers, to third-party service providers to help us operate our Sites, maintain customers' online accounts, provide products and services for or through the Sites, and ship products.

    In order for you to obtain our products and services, we may need to provide your credit card number to third-party financial services corporations such as credit-card processors.  We may also use your personal information to report to credit bureaus, if necessary.   

    We may use third-party providers in order to verify your delivery or credit card information, or to otherwise conduct due diligence to ensure proper processing of your order and to minimize the risk of fraudulent transactions.   

    We use third-party companies to help tailor the Sites' content to users, to serve ads on our behalf, and to conduct data analysis.  We also purchase marketing data from third parties and add it to our existing user database in order to better target our advertising, communicate with you about our products and special offers, and enhance your experience on the Sites. 

    We may disclose personal information in response to requests from government authorities or law enforcement officials conducting investigations, subpoenas, or court orders, or if we are otherwise required to disclose such information by law.  We may disclose personal information where disclosure is necessary to protect our legal rights, enforce our agreements, or protect the rights, property, or safety of others or ourselves.  For example, we may share information to reduce the risk of fraud or if someone uses or attempts to use the Sites for illegal reasons or to commit fraud.

    We may share the personal information of consumers within our affiliated companies in order to provide consumers with offers for products or services from our affiliated companies.  Any of our affiliated companies might acquire or merge with, or be acquired by or merged with, another company, or we might dispose of some or all of our assets via sale, reorganization, consolidation, or liquidation.  If that happens, your personal information may be disclosed or transferred to another company.
  2. Protecting Your Information

    We take reasonable and appropriate measures designed to protect your personal information, including implementing certain technical, administrative, and physical security measures intended to help protect customer information from unauthorized access and improper use.  This is an ongoing process and, from time to time, we review our security procedures in order to consider appropriate new technology and methods.  Please be aware that, despite our best efforts, no security measures are perfect or impenetrable.
  3. Retention of Your Information

    We will retain personal information we collect as described in this Privacy Policy for as long as necessary to fulfill the purpose(s) for which it was collected, pursue legitimate business purposes, comply with all applicable laws, and in accordance with our routine information storage policies.  Nothing in this paragraph shall be construed to supersede any individual rights described below.
  4. Children's Data

    It is our policy to comply with the Children's Online Privacy Protection Act of 1998 and all other applicable laws. We do not knowingly or intentionally collect personal information from persons who are under the age of eighteen (18).  If you are under the age of eighteen (18), you should not use the Sites or submit personal information via the Sites. 
  5. Third-Party "Linked-To" Websites

    When you are on the Sites, you may have the opportunity to click on links to other websites, including websites operated by unaffiliated third parties. Websites that we do not operate may collect personal information about you.  We do not control websites that are operated by these unaffiliated third parties and we are not responsible for the information practices of these websites. This Privacy Policy does not address the information practices of those other websites. 
  6. Cross-Border Transfer

    Your personal information may be stored and processed in any country where our affiliated companies have offices or servers or in which we engage service providers. Your personal information may be transferred to countries outside your country of residence that may have different data protection and data processing laws than those in your country. Our Privacy Policy requires all of our offices to at all times ensure a level of protection at least as protective as those mandated by the European Economic Area. Any such transfer shall take place only in accordance with and as permitted by the law of your jurisdiction, but please be aware that the laws and practices relating to the protection of personal information are likely to be different and in some cases may be weaker than those within your home jurisdiction. Regardless, in all events, we shall apply the provisions of this Privacy Policy to your personal information wherever it is located.
  7. Your Rights

    To the extent required by law, you may have the right to obtain reasonable access to the personal information that you have provided to us, a portable copy of such information, and the ability to review, correct, delete, restrict, or object to the processing of such information. You may also have the right to withdraw consent you have given for us to process your personal information. (You can always request to unsubscribe to emails by using the "unsubscribe" link found within our marketing emails.)  To the extent you have such rights, you can exercise them by contacting us at the following contact points for each of the affiliated companies:

Stacks-Bowers Numismatics, LLC:

[email protected]

800-299-9152

1550 Scenic Ave. #150

Costa Mesa, CA 92626

Attn:  Privacy Officer

 

Spectrum Group International, Inc:

[email protected]

800-299-9152

1550 Scenic Ave. #150

Costa Mesa, CA 92626

Attn:  Privacy Officer

 

Spectrum Auction Services, LLC:

[email protected]

800-299-9152

1550 Scenic Ave. #150

Costa Mesa, CA 92626

Attn:  Privacy Officer

 

Spectrum Numismatics International, Inc.:

[email protected]

800-299-9152

1550 Scenic Ave. #150

Costa Mesa, CA 92626

Attn:  Privacy Officer

 

Bowers and Merena Auctions, LLC:

[email protected]

800-299-9152

1550 Scenic Ave. #150

Costa Mesa, CA 92626

Attn:  Privacy Officer

SBG Finance, LLC

[email protected]

800-299-9152

1550 Scenic Ave. #150

Costa Mesa, CA 92626

 

Attn:  Privacy Officer

 

SGI France:

[email protected]

800-299-9152

36-38 rue des Mathurins

75008 Paris

Attn:  EU GDPR Representative

Stacks-Bowers and Ponterio, LTD:

[email protected]

800-299-9152

Unit 1603, 16/F Mira Place Tower A,
No.132 Nathan Road, Tsim Sha Tsui,
Kowloon, Hong Kong

Attn:  Privacy Officer

 

Although we make good faith efforts to provide individuals with access to their personal information, there may be circumstances in which we are unable to provide access, including but not limited to: where the information contains legal privilege, where we would compromise others' privacy or other legitimate rights, where the burden or expense of providing access would be disproportionate to the risks to the individual's privacy in the case in question, or where the information is commercially proprietary.  If we determine that access should be restricted in any particular instance, we will endeavor to provide you with an explanation of why that determination has been made and a contact point for any further inquiries.  To protect your privacy, we will take commercially reasonable steps to verify your identity before granting access to or making any changes to your personal information.

  1. Dispute Resolution

    EU data subjects may report privacy complaints directly to their local data protection authorities. You may also contact us at the physical addresses, email addresses, or phone numbers listed above to be directed to the relevant authorities.
  2. California Consumer Privacy Rights

The California Consumer Privacy Act (CCPA) grants California residents certain rights regarding the use of their personal information.  This section of the Privacy Policy describes those rights.

(1) The right to notice that personal information will be collected:

You have the right to request that we disclose certain information to you about our collection and use of consumers' personal information.  This information is disclosed below and updated at least once every 12 months.

The categories of information we may collect from you on this Site, and that we have collected from consumers on this Site in the past 12 months, are listed below along with the purposes for which we collect this information:

  • Identifiers (such as your name, address, IP address, email address, account name, and Social Security Number):  We collect identifiers for a variety of business purposes, including for: allowing customers to register accounts on the Sites; providing customer service and communicating with customers; processing, tracking, and fulfilling orders and transactions; performing requested services; maintaining records; marketing, advertising, and data analysis purposes; facilitating and tracking usage of the Sites; verifying and conducting due diligence on customers; and providing third-party service providers with the information they need to perform services for us.  The purposes for which we collect such information may vary based on our relationship with you.  Please refer to the sections above titled "Collection of Your Information" and "Use of Your Information" for a further description of the purposes for which we collect such information.      
  • Personal information categories listed in Cal. Civ. Code § 1798.80(e) (such as your name, signature, Social Security Number, physical characteristics, address, telephone number, passport number, driver's license, employment history, financial information, medical information, or health insurance information):  We collect such personal information for a variety of business purposes, including for: allowing customers to register accounts on the Sites; providing customer service and communicating with customers; processing, tracking, and fulfilling orders and transactions; performing requested services; maintaining records; marketing, advertising, and data analysis purposes; facilitating and tracking usage of the Sites; verifying and conducting due diligence on customers; and providing third-party service providers with the information they need to perform services for us.  The purposes for which we collect such information may vary based on our relationship with you.  Please refer to the sections above titled "Collection of Your Information" and "Use of Your Information" for a further description of the purposes for which we collect such information.      
  • Protected classification characteristics under California or federal law (such as your age, race, national origin, citizenship, religion, marital status, medical condition, physical or mental disability, sexual orientation, veteran or military status, genetic information):  We may collect your age, birthdate, or marital status for business purposes relating to you creating an account on the Sites and filling out forms or applications relating to our products and services, including in connection with applying for loans.  The purposes for which we collect such information may vary based on our relationship with you.  Please refer to the sections above titled "Collection of Your Information" and "Use of Your Information" for a further description of the purposes for which we collect such information.  We do not collect information regarding your race, national origin, religion, medical condition, physical or mental disability, sexual orientation, veteran or military status, or genetic information.
  • Commercial information (such as records of personal property, products, or services purchased, obtained, or considered, or other purchasing or consuming histories or tendencies):  We collect commercial information for a variety of business purposes, including to offer you products or services, including financial products, and to verify your identity or creditworthiness.  The purposes for which we collect such information may vary based on our relationship with you.  Please refer to the sections above titled "Collection of Your Information" and "Use of Your Information" for a further description of the purposes for which we collect such information.     
  • Internet or network activity and geolocation data (such as browsing history, search history, or physical location):  The Sites' servers automatically recognize the Internet URL from which you access the Sites. We may also log your IP address, Internet service provider, and date/time stamp for system administration, order verification, internal marketing, and system troubleshooting purposes.  The Sites use cookies, web beacons, and other technologies to facilitate your navigation of the Sites, recognize you and your access privileges, and track your usage of the Sites.  Please refer to the sections above titled "Collection of Your Information" and "Use of Your Information" for a further description of the purposes for which we collect such information.       
  • Professional or employment-related information (such your current or past job history):  We may collect information related to your employment in connection with your application for our goods or services, or to verify your identity or creditworthiness.  The purposes for which we collect such information may vary based on our relationship with you.  Please refer to the sections above titled "Collection of Your Information" and "Use of Your Information" for a further description of the purposes for which we collect such information.     
  • We do not collect the following categories of information: biometric information; sensory data; non-public education information; or inferences drawn from personal information, such as a profile reflecting predispositions, behavior, or aptitudes.

(2) The right to know what personal information has been collected, sold, or disclosed for a business purpose, and to whom it was sold or disclosed:

You have the right to request that we disclose certain information to you about what personal information we have collected about you in the past 12 months.  Once we receive and confirm your verifiable consumer request, we will disclose to you, depending on the nature of your request:

  • The categories of personal information we've collected about you.
  • The categories of sources for the personal information we've collected about you.
  • Our business or commercial purpose for collecting and/or selling that personal information.
  • The categories of third parties with whom we've shared that personal information.
  • The specific pieces of personal information we've collected about you.
  • If we sold or disclosed your personal information for a business purpose, two separate lists disclosing:
    • All sales of your personal information, identifying the categories of personal information that were sold and the categories of each third party recipient who purchased that information; and
    • All disclosures of your personal information for a business purpose, identifying the categories of personal information that were disclosed and the categories of each third-party recipient who obtained that information.
    • Note:  We do not sell the personal information of any consumer.  However, we may disclose the personal information of consumers within our affiliated companies in order to provide those consumers with offers for products or services from our affiliated companies.

By law, in response to a request submitted under the CCPA, we will never disclose an individual consumer's specific Social Security number, driver's license number or other government-issued identification number, financial account number, any health insurance or medical identification number, account password, or any security questions and answers.

(3) The right to opt out of the sale of personal information:

You have the right to direct companies not to sell your personal information.   
We do not, and will not, sell your personal information. 

(4) The right to have your personal information deleted:

You have the right to request that we delete any of your personal information that we collected from you and retained, subject to certain exceptions. Once we receive and confirm your verifiable consumer request, we will delete (and direct our service providers to delete) your personal information from our records.  We will notify you if a statutory exception prevents us from deleting your information.

(5) The right to non-discrimination as a result of exercising these rights. 

Finally, you have the right to be protected from discrimination by any business as a result of exercising your rights under the CCPA.  For example, as a result of you exercising these rights, we will never deny you goods or services, charge you different prices or rates, or provide you a different level or quality of goods or services.

If you believe we have violated any of rights under the CCPA, including the right to non-discrimination, please contact us at the contact points listed above. 

Exercising your rights as a California resident:

If you are a California resident and would like to make a request pursuant to any of the rights described in this section, you may do so by filling out one or more of the forms at the following link: https://www.stacksbowers.com/Pages/dataprivacyrequest.aspx.  Alternatively, California residents may make the same requests by calling 800-299-9152, sending an e-mail to [email protected] or contacting us at: Stacks-Bowers Numismatics, LLC,  1550 Scenic Ave. #150, Costa Mesa, CA 92626, Attn:  Privacy Officer.

 

In order to protect your personal information, we are required to verify that any person making a request under this section is in fact you or your authorized agent.  In order to verify the identity of the person making a request, we may ask you to provide the following information: your date of birth; your account number with us (we will never ask you for your passwords outside of the encrypted log-in screen used to access your account on our website); your email address that we have on file (we will never ask you for your passwords outside of the encrypted log-in screen used to access your account on our website); or your account history with us, including your recent purchases or transactions and the last four digits of the credit card that you used to make those purchases.

We will use this information only for the purposes of verifying that your request is authentic .  However, no consumer will be required to create an account for the purposes of submitting a request under the CCPA.

Once we receive your request, we will respond within 10 days and inform you if we need any more information in order to verify your request.  We will provide the information you requested within 45 days of your request. If we require more than 45 days to respond to your request, we will inform you of the reasons why.

If you have an account with us, we will deliver our written response to that account.  If you do not have an account with us, we will deliver our written response by mail or electronically, at your option.  Any disclosures we provide will only cover the 12-month period preceding the verifiable consumer request's receipt.  The response we provide will also explain the reasons we cannot comply with a request, if applicable. 

We do not charge a fee to process or respond to your verifiable consumer request unless it is excessive, repetitive, or manifestly unfounded.
Exercising the rights of a California resident as the resident's authorized agent:

If you are a consumer and you would like to authorize an agent to submit requests on your behalf, in order to exercise your rights under the CCPA, please designate your authorized agent by filling out the form at the following link:

https://www.stacksbowers.com/Pages/dataprivacyrequest.aspx

Alternatively, you may authorize an agent by calling 800-299-9152.  We may require written and signed authorization from you before an agent may act on your behalf.

In order to verify your identity when you are authorizing an agent to act on your behalf, we may ask you to provide the following information: your date of birth; your account number with us (we will never ask you for your passwords outside of the encrypted log-in screen used to access your account on our website); your email address that we have on file (we will never ask you for your passwords outside of the encrypted log-in screen used to access your account on our website); or your account history with us, including your recent purchases or transactions and the last four digits of the credit card that you used to make those purchases.

Children's privacy rights as California residents:

Protecting children's privacy is especially important to us.  We therefore do not knowingly or intentionally collect personal information from persons who are under eighteen (18) years of age.  We also do not sell the personal information of persons who are under eighteen (18) years of age.

  1. Updates to the Privacy Policy

    We may update this Privacy Policy.  When we do so, we will revise the "Last Updated" date of this Privacy Policy.  We encourage you to review this Privacy Policy from time to time so you will know if the Privacy Policy has been changed or updated.  If you have any questions about the Privacy Policy, please contact us. 

    Last updated: November 16, 2020

     
​​